The Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato who founded the Platonic Academy, and was one of the most influential Greek thinkers for the whole of Western thought.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics.
Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic, philosophy of science, and the history of Western philosophy.
Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today.
Colin Mc Ginn and others claim that no philosophical progress has occurred during that interval.
Pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy begins with the work of Zoroaster, one of the first promoters of monotheism and of the dualism between good and evil.
This dualistic cosmogony influenced later Iranian developments such as Manichaeism, Mazdakism, and Zurvanism.In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics.Newton's 1687 "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics; he used the term "natural philosophy" because it used to encompass disciplines that later became associated with sciences such as astronomy, medicine and physics. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology.This period saw the development of Scholasticism, a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts.The Renaissance (1355–1650) period saw increasing focus on classic Greco-Roman thought and on a robust Humanism.Other traditions include Cynicism, Stoicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism.